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Java - Operators Precedence



Java Operators Precedence

Operator precedence (order of operations) is a collection of rules that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given expression.

For example, multiplication has higher precedence than addition. Thus, the expression 1 + 2 × 3 is interpreted to have the value 1 + (2 × 3) = 7, and not (1 + 2) × 3 = 9. When exponent is used in the expression, it has precedence over both addition and multiplication. Thus 3 + 52 = 28 and 3 × 52 = 75.

Operator Associativity

Operator associativity is the direction in which an expression is evaluated. For example:

int x = 10;
int y = 20;

//associativity of = operator is
//Left to Right, hence x will become 20
x = y;

As the associativity of = is left to right. Hence x is assigned the value of y.

Example:

The example below illustrates the operator precedence in Java.

public class MyClass {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    int retval1, retval2, retval3;

    //evaluates 5 * 2 first
    retval1 = 15 - 5 * 2;

    //above expression is equivalent to
    retval2 = 15 - (5 * 2);

    //forcing compiler to evaluate 15 - 5 first
    retval3 = (15 - 5) * 2;

    System.out.println("15 - 5 * 2 = " + retval1); 
    System.out.println("15 - (5 * 2) = " + retval2); 
    System.out.println("(15 - 5) * 2 = " + retval3);  
  }
}

The output of the above code will be:

15 - 5 * 2 = 5
15 - (5 * 2) = 5
(15 - 5) * 2 = 20

Java Operators Precedence Table

The following table lists the precedence and associativity of Java operators. Operators are listed top to bottom, in descending precedence. Operators with higher precedence are evaluated before operators with relatively lower precedence. When operators have the same precedence, associativity of the operators determines the order in which the operations are performed.

PrecedenceOperatorDescriptionAssociativity
16.Object member accessLeft to Right
[ ]Array element access
( )Parentheses
15a++  a--Postfix Increment, Postfix DecrementNA
14!Logical NOTRight to Left
~Bitwise NOT
+a  -aUnary plus, Unary negation
++a  --aPrefix Increment, Prefix Decrement
13( )Cast
newObject creation
12*  /  %Multiplication, Division, RemainderLeft to Right
11+  -Addition, Subtraction, string concatenation
10<<  >>  >>>Bitwise left shift, right shift and unsigned right shift
9<  <=  >  >=Less than, Less than or equal, Greater than, and Greater than or equal
instanceofInstance of Object
8==  !=Equality, Inequality
7&Bitwise AND
6^Bitwise XOR
5|Bitwise OR
4&&Logical AND
3||Logical OR
2a?b:cConditional (ternary) operatorRight to Left
1=Direct assignment
+=  -=  *=  /=  %=Compound assignment by sum, difference, product, quotient and remainder
<<=  >>=  >>>=Compound assignment by Bitwise left shift, right shift and unsigned right shift
&=  ^=  |=Compound assignment by Bitwise AND, XOR and OR

❮ Java - Operators

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