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Perl - right shift operator



The Bitwise right shift operator (>>) takes the two numbers and right shift the bits of first operand by number of place specified by second operand. For example: for right shifting the bits of x by y places, the expression (x>>y) can be used. It is equivalent to dividing x by 2y.

The example below describes how right shift operator works:

1000 >> 2 returns 250

                      (In Binary)
   1000         ->    1111101000  
   >> 2                     |  right shift the bits
   -----                    V  by 2 places
    250         <-      11111010 
                      (In Binary) 

The code of using right shift operator (>>) is given below:

$x = 1000;

#right shift operation
$z = $x >> 2;

#Displaying the result
print("z = $z");

The output of the above code will be:

z = 250

Example: Find largest power of 2 less than or equal to given number

Consider an integer 1000. In the bit-wise format, it can be written as 1111101000. However, all bits are not written here. A complete representation will be 32 bit representation as given below:

00000000000000000000001111101000  

Performing n = n | (n>>i) operation, where i = 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 will change all right side bit to 1. When applied on 1000, the result in 32 bit representation is given below:

00000000000000000000001111111111 

Adding one to this result and then right shifting the result by one place will give largest power of 2 less than or equal to 1000.

00000000000000000000001000000000 

The below code will calculate the largest power of 2 less than or equal to given number.

sub MaxPowerOfTwo {
  #passing argument
  $n = $_[0];  

  #changing all right side bits to 1.
  $n = $n | ($n>>1);
  $n = $n | ($n>>2);
  $n = $n | ($n>>4);
  $n = $n | ($n>>8);
  $n = $n | ($n>>16);
  
  #adding 1 to n makes smallest power
  #of 2 greater than given number
  $n = $n + 1;

  #right shift by one position makes
  #largest power of 2 less than or 
  #equal to given number
  $n = $n >> 1;
  
  return $n;
}

print("MaxPowerOfTwo(100) = ".MaxPowerOfTwo(100)."\n");
print("MaxPowerOfTwo(500) = ".MaxPowerOfTwo(500)."\n");
print("MaxPowerOfTwo(1000) = ".MaxPowerOfTwo(1000)."\n");   

The above code will give the following output:

MaxPowerOfTwo(100) = 64
MaxPowerOfTwo(500) = 256
MaxPowerOfTwo(1000) = 512

❮ Perl - Operators

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