# C - Circular Doubly Linked List

A circular doubly linked list is a linear data structure, in which the elements are stored in the form of a node. Each node contains three sub-elements. A data part that stores the value of the element, the previous part that stores the pointer to the previous node, and the next part that stores the pointer to the next node as shown in the below image:

The first node also known as HEAD is always used as a reference to traverse the list. Last element contains link to the first element as next and the first element contains link of the last element as previous. A circular doubly linked can be visualized as a chain of nodes, where every node points to previous and next node.

## Implementation of Circular Doubly Linked List

### Representation:

In C, a node can be created using structure as shown below:

//node structure struct Node { int data; struct Node* next; struct Node* prev; };

### Create a Circular Doubly Linked List

Let us create a simple circular doubly linked list which contains three data nodes.

#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> //node structure struct Node { int data; struct Node* next; struct Node* prev; }; // test the code int main() { //create the head node with name MyList struct Node* MyList = NULL; //Add first node. struct Node* first; //allocate second node in the heap first = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); first->data = 10; first->next = NULL; first->prev = NULL; //linking with head node MyList = first; //linking next of the node with head first->next = MyList; //linking prev of the head MyList->prev = first; //Add second node. struct Node* second; //allocate second node in the heap second = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); second->data = 20; second->next = NULL; //linking with first node second->prev = first; first->next = second; //linking next of the node with head second->next = MyList; //linking prev of the head MyList->prev = second; //Add third node. struct Node* third; //allocate third node in the heap third = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); third->data = 30; third->next = NULL; //linking with second node third->prev = second; second->next = third; //linking next of the node with head third->next = MyList; //linking prev of the head MyList->prev = third; return 0; }

### Traverse a Circular Doubly Linked List

A circular doubly linked list can be traversed from any node of the list using a temp node. Keep on moving the temp node to the next one and displaying its content. Stop the traversal, after reaching the starting node.

#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> //node structure struct Node { int data; struct Node* next; struct Node* prev; }; //display the content of the list void PrintList(struct Node* head_ref) { struct Node* temp = head_ref; if(head_ref != NULL) { printf("\nThe list contains: "); while (1) { printf("%i ",temp->data); temp = temp->next; if(temp == head_ref) break; } } else { printf("\nThe list is empty."); } } // test the code int main() { //create the head node with name MyList struct Node* MyList = NULL; //Add first node. struct Node* first; //allocate second node in the heap first = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); first->data = 10; first->next = NULL; first->prev = NULL; //linking with head node MyList = first; //linking next of the node with head first->next = MyList; //linking prev of the head MyList->prev = first; //Add second node. struct Node* second; //allocate second node in the heap second = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); second->data = 20; second->next = NULL; //linking with first node second->prev = first; first->next = second; //linking next of the node with head second->next = MyList; //linking prev of the head MyList->prev = second; //Add third node. struct Node* third; //allocate third node in the heap third = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); third->data = 30; third->next = NULL; //linking with second node third->prev = second; second->next = third; //linking next of the node with head third->next = MyList; //linking prev of the head MyList->prev = third; //print the content of list PrintList(MyList); return 0; }

The above code will give the following output:

The list contains: 10 20 30