C++ Data Structures - Doubly Linked List Other Related Topics

C++ - Doubly Linked List



A doubly linked list is a linear data structure, in which the elements are stored in the form of a node. Each node contains three sub-elements. A data part that stores the value of the element, the previous part that stores the pointer to the previous node, and the next part that stores the pointer to the next node as shown in the below image:

Linked List Node

The first node also known as HEAD is always used as a reference to traverse the list. The previous of head node and next of last node points to NULL. A doubly linked list can be visualized as a chain of nodes, where every node points to previous and next node.

Linked List

Implementation of Doubly Linked List

Representation:

In C++, doubly linked list can be created using a class and a Node using structures. The LinkedList class contains Node as class member.

//node structure
struct Node {
    int data;
    Node* next;
    Node* prev;
};

class LinkedList {
  public:
    Node* head;
  public:
    //constructor to create an empty LinkedList
    LinkedList(){
      head = NULL;
    }
};

Create a Doubly Linked List

Let us create a simple doubly linked list which contains three data nodes.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

//node structure
struct Node {
    int data;
    Node* next;
    Node* prev;
};

class LinkedList {
  public:
    Node* head;
  public:
    //constructor to create an empty LinkedList
    LinkedList(){
      head = NULL;
    } 
};

// test the code  
int main() {
  //create an empty LinkedList
  LinkedList MyList;

  //Add first node.
  Node* first = new Node();
  first->data = 10;
  first->next = NULL;
  first->prev = NULL;
  //linking with head node
  MyList.head = first;       

  //Add second node.
  Node* second = new Node();
  second->data = 20;
  second->next = NULL;
  //linking with first node
  second->prev = first;  
  first->next = second; 

  //Add third node.
  Node* third = new Node();
  third->data = 30;
  third->next = NULL;
  //linking with second node
  third->prev = second;
  second->next = third;

  return 0;
}

Traverse a Doubly Linked List

A doubly linked list can be traversed using a temp node. Keep on moving the temp node to the next one and displaying its content. At the end of the list, the temp node will become NULL.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

//node structure
struct Node {
    int data;
    Node* next;
    Node* prev;
};

class LinkedList {
  public:
    Node* head;
  public:
    //constructor to create an empty LinkedList
    LinkedList(){
      head = NULL;
    }

    //display the content of the list
    void PrintList() {
      Node* temp = head;
      if(temp != NULL) {
        cout<<"The list contains: ";
        while(temp != NULL) {
          cout<<temp->data<<" ";
          temp = temp->next;
        }
        cout<<endl;
      } else {
        cout<<"The list is empty.\n";
      }
    }    
};

// test the code  
int main() {
  //create an empty LinkedList
  LinkedList MyList;

  //Add first node.
  Node* first = new Node();
  first->data = 10;
  first->next = NULL;
  first->prev = NULL;
  //linking with head node
  MyList.head = first;       

  //Add second node.
  Node* second = new Node();
  second->data = 20;
  second->next = NULL;
  //linking with first node
  second->prev = first;  
  first->next = second; 

  //Add third node.
  Node* third = new Node();
  third->data = 30;
  third->next = NULL;
  //linking with second node
  third->prev = second;
  second->next = third;

  //print the content of list
  MyList.PrintList();
  return 0; 
}

The above code will give the following output:

The list contains: 10 20 30

5