# Circular Doubly Linked List - Insert a new node at the given position

In this method, a new element is inserted at the specified position in the circular doubly linked list. For example - if the given list is 10->20->30 and a new element 100 is added at position 2, the list becomes 10->100->20->30.

First, create two nodes: 1. newNode with given element and 2. temp to traverse through the list. After that count the number of elements in the list to check whether the insertion position is valid or not (It must lie in the range of [1, n + 1], where n is number of elements in the list). If the insertion position is valid and equal to 1 then make the newNode as head and adjust links accordingly. If the insertion position is valid and greater than 1 then traverse to the specified position and insert the newNode and adjust links accordingly.

The function push_at is created for this purpose. It is a 5-step process.

```void push_at(int newElement, int position) {

//1. allocate node to new element and
//   create a temp node to traverse the list
Node* newNode = new Node();
newNode->data = newElement;
newNode->next = NULL;
int NoOfElements = 0;

//2. Find the number of elements in the list
if(temp != NULL) {
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp->next;
}
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp->next;
}

//3. check if the insertion position is valid
if(position < 1 || position > (NoOfElements+1)) {
cout<<"\nInavalid position.";
} else if (position == 1) {

//4. if the position is 1, make next of the
} else {
temp = temp->next;
}
temp->next = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
}
} else {

//5. Else, traverse to the node previous to
//   the given position, make newNode next
//   as temp next and temp next as newNode.
for(int i = 1; i < position-1; i++)
temp = temp->next;
newNode->next = temp->next;
newNode->next->prev = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
temp->next = newNode;
}
}
```
```void push_at(struct Node** head_ref, int newElement, int position) {

//1. allocate node to new element and
//   create a temp node to traverse the list
struct Node *newNode = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node));
newNode->data = newElement;
newNode->next = NULL;
int NoOfElements = 0;

//2. Find the number of elements in the list
if(temp != NULL) {
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp->next;
}
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp->next;
}

//3. check if the insertion position is valid
if(position < 1 || position > (NoOfElements+1)) {
printf("\nInavalid position.");
} else if (position == 1) {

//4. if the position is 1, make next of the
} else {
temp = temp->next;
}
temp->next = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
}
} else {

//5. Else, traverse to the node previous to
//   the given position, make newNode next
//   as temp next and temp next as newNode.
for(int i = 1; i < position-1; i++)
temp = temp->next;
newNode->next = temp->next;
newNode->next->prev = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
temp->next = newNode;
}
}
```
```def push_at(self, newElement, position):

#1. allocate node to new element and
#   create a temp node to traverse the list
newNode = Node(newElement)
NoOfElements = 0

#2. Find the number of elements in the list
if(temp != None):
NoOfElements += 1
temp = temp.next
NoOfElements += 1
temp = temp.next

#3. check if the insertion position is valid
if(position < 1 or position > (NoOfElements+1)):
print("\nInavalid position.")
elif (position == 1):

#4. if the position is 1, make next of the
else:
temp = temp.next
temp.next = newNode
newNode.prev = temp

else:

#5. Else, traverse to the node previous to
#   the given position, make newNode next
#   as temp next and temp next as newNode.
for i in range(1, position-1):
temp = temp.next
newNode.next = temp.next
newNode.next.prev = newNode
newNode.prev = temp
temp.next = newNode
```
```void push_at(int newElement, int position) {

//1. allocate node to new element and
//   create a temp node to traverse the list
Node newNode = new Node();
newNode.data = newElement;
newNode.next = null;
int NoOfElements = 0;

//2. Find the number of elements in the list
if(temp != null) {
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp.next;
}
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp.next;
}

//3. check if the insertion position is valid
if(position < 1 || position > (NoOfElements+1)) {
System.out.print("\nInvalid position.");
} else if (position == 1) {

//4. if the position is 1, make next of the
} else {
temp = temp.next;
}
temp.next = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
}
} else {

//5. Else, traverse to the node previous to
//   the given position, make newNode next
//   as temp next and temp next as newNode.
for(int i = 1; i < position-1; i++)
temp = temp.next;
newNode.next = temp.next;
newNode.next.prev = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
temp.next = newNode;
}
}
```
```public void push_at(int newElement, int position) {

//1. allocate node to new element and
//   create a temp node to traverse the list
Node newNode = new Node();
newNode.data = newElement;
newNode.next = null;
int NoOfElements = 0;

//2. Find the number of elements in the list
if(temp != null) {
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp.next;
}
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp.next;
}

//3. check if the insertion position is valid
if(position < 1 || position > (NoOfElements+1)) {
Console.Write("\nInvalid position.");
} else if (position == 1) {

//4. if the position is 1, make next of the
} else {
temp = temp.next;
}
temp.next = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
}
} else {

//5. Else, traverse to the node previous to
//   the given position, make newNode next
//   as temp next and temp next as newNode.
for(int i = 1; i < position-1; i++)
temp = temp.next;
newNode.next = temp.next;
newNode.next.prev = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
temp.next = newNode;
}
}
```
```public function push_at(\$newElement, \$position) {

//1. allocate node to new element and
//   create a temp node to traverse the list
\$newNode = new Node();
\$newNode->data = \$newElement;
\$newNode->next = null;
\$NoOfElements = 0;

//2. Find the number of elements in the list
if(\$temp != null) {
\$NoOfElements++;
\$temp = \$temp->next;
}
\$NoOfElements++;
\$temp = \$temp->next;
}

//3. check if the insertion position is valid
if(\$position < 1 || \$position > (\$NoOfElements+1)) {
echo "\nInvalid position.";
} else if (\$position == 1) {

//4. if the position is 1, make next of the
} else {
\$temp = \$temp->next;
}
\$temp->next = \$newNode;
\$newNode->prev = \$temp;
}
} else {

//5. Else, traverse to the node previous to
//   the given position, make newNode next
//   as temp next and temp next as newNode.
for(\$i = 1; \$i < \$position-1; \$i++)
\$temp = \$temp->next;
\$newNode->next = \$temp->next;
\$newNode->next->prev = \$newNode;
\$newNode->prev = \$temp;
\$temp->next = \$newNode;
}
}
```

The below is a complete program that uses above discussed concept to insert a new node at given position in the circular doubly linked list.

```#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

//node structure
struct Node {
int data;
Node* next;
Node* prev;
};

private:
public:
}

//Add new element at the end of the list
void push_back(int newElement) {
Node* newNode = new Node();
newNode->data = newElement;
newNode->next = NULL;
newNode->prev = NULL;
} else {
temp = temp->next;
temp->next = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
}
}

//Inserts a new element at the given position
void push_at(int newElement, int position) {
Node* newNode = new Node();
newNode->data = newElement;
newNode->next = NULL;
int NoOfElements = 0;
if(temp != NULL) {
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp->next;
}
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp->next;
}
if(position < 1 || position > (NoOfElements+1)) {
cout<<"\nInavalid position.";
} else if (position == 1) {

} else {
temp = temp->next;
}
temp->next = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
}
} else {

for(int i = 1; i < position-1; i++)
temp = temp->next;
newNode->next = temp->next;
newNode->next->prev = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
temp->next = newNode;
}
}

//display the content of the list
void PrintList() {
if(temp != NULL) {
cout<<"The list contains: ";
while(true) {
cout<<temp->data<<" ";
temp = temp->next;
break;
}
cout<<endl;
} else {
cout<<"The list is empty.\n";
}
}
};

// test the code
int main() {

//Add three elements at the end of the list.
MyList.push_back(10);
MyList.push_back(20);
MyList.push_back(30);
MyList.PrintList();

//Insert an element at position 2
MyList.push_at(100, 2);
MyList.PrintList();

//Insert an element at position 1
MyList.push_at(200, 1);
MyList.PrintList();

return 0;
}
```

The above code will give the following output:

```The list contains: 10 20 30
The list contains: 10 100 20 30
The list contains: 200 10 100 20 30
```
```#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

//node structure
struct Node {
int data;
struct Node* next;
struct Node* prev;
};

//Add new element at the end of the list
void push_back(struct Node** head_ref, int newElement) {
struct Node *newNode, *temp;
newNode = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node));
newNode->data = newElement;
newNode->next = NULL;
newNode->prev = NULL;
} else {
temp = temp->next;
}
temp->next = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
}
}

//Inserts a new element at the given position
void push_at(struct Node** head_ref, int newElement, int position) {
struct Node *newNode = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node));
newNode->data = newElement;
newNode->next = NULL;
int NoOfElements = 0;

if(temp != NULL) {
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp->next;
}
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp->next;
}
if(position < 1 || position > (NoOfElements+1)) {
printf("\nInavalid position.");
} else if (position == 1) {
} else {
temp = temp->next;
}
temp->next = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
}
} else {

for(int i = 1; i < position-1; i++)
temp = temp->next;
newNode->next = temp->next;
newNode->next->prev = newNode;
newNode->prev = temp;
temp->next = newNode;
}
}

//display the content of the list
printf("The list contains: ");
while (1) {
printf("%i ",temp->data);
temp = temp->next;
break;
}
printf("\n");
} else {
printf("The list is empty.\n");
}
}

// test the code
int main() {
struct Node* MyList = NULL;

//Add three elements at the end of the list.
push_back(&MyList, 10);
push_back(&MyList, 20);
push_back(&MyList, 30);
PrintList(MyList);

//Insert an element at position 2
push_at(&MyList, 100, 2);
PrintList(MyList);

//Insert an element at position 1
push_at(&MyList, 200, 1);
PrintList(MyList);

return 0;
}
```

The above code will give the following output:

```The list contains: 10 20 30
The list contains: 10 100 20 30
The list contains: 200 10 100 20 30
```
```# node structure
class Node:
def __init__(self, data):
self.data = data
self.next = None
self.prev = None

def __init__(self):

#Add new element at the end of the list
def push_back(self, newElement):
newNode = Node(newElement)
return
else:
temp = temp.next
temp.next = newNode
newNode.prev = temp

#Inserts a new element at the given position
def push_at(self, newElement, position):
newNode = Node(newElement)
NoOfElements = 0
if(temp != None):
NoOfElements += 1
temp = temp.next
NoOfElements += 1
temp = temp.next

if(position < 1 or position > (NoOfElements+1)):
print("\nInavalid position.")
elif (position == 1):
else:
temp = temp.next
temp.next = newNode
newNode.prev = temp

else:
for i in range(1, position-1):
temp = temp.next
newNode.next = temp.next
newNode.next.prev = newNode
newNode.prev = temp
temp.next = newNode

#display the content of the list
def PrintList(self):
if(temp != None):
print("The list contains:", end=" ")
while (True):
print(temp.data, end=" ")
temp = temp.next
break
print()
else:
print("The list is empty.")

# test the code

#Add three elements at the end of the list.
MyList.push_back(10)
MyList.push_back(20)
MyList.push_back(30)
MyList.PrintList()

#Insert an element at position 2
MyList.push_at(100, 2)
MyList.PrintList()

#Insert an element at position 1
MyList.push_at(200, 1)
MyList.PrintList()
```

The above code will give the following output:

```The list contains: 10 20 30
The list contains: 10 100 20 30
The list contains: 200 10 100 20 30
```
```//node structure
class Node {
int data;
Node next;
Node prev;
};

}

//Add new element at the end of the list
void push_back(int newElement) {
Node newNode = new Node();
newNode.data = newElement;
newNode.next = null;
newNode.next = null;
} else {
Node temp = new Node();
temp = temp.next;
temp.next = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
}
}

//Inserts a new element at the given position
void push_at(int newElement, int position) {
Node newNode = new Node();
newNode.data = newElement;
newNode.next = null;
int NoOfElements = 0;
if(temp != null) {
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp.next;
}
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp.next;
}

if(position < 1 || position > (NoOfElements+1)) {
System.out.print("\nInvalid position.");
} else if (position == 1) {
} else {
temp = temp.next;
}
temp.next = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
}
} else {

for(int i = 1; i < position-1; i++)
temp = temp.next;
newNode.next = temp.next;
newNode.next.prev = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
temp.next = newNode;
}
}

//display the content of the list
void PrintList() {
Node temp = new Node();
if(temp != null) {
System.out.print("The list contains: ");
while(true) {
System.out.print(temp.data + " ");
temp = temp.next;
break;
}
System.out.println();
} else {
System.out.println("The list is empty.");
}
}
};

// test the code
public class Implementation {
public static void main(String[] args) {

//Add three elements at the end of the list.
MyList.push_back(10);
MyList.push_back(20);
MyList.push_back(30);
MyList.PrintList();

//Insert an element at position 2
MyList.push_at(100, 2);
MyList.PrintList();

//Insert an element at position 1
MyList.push_at(200, 1);
MyList.PrintList();
}
}
```

The above code will give the following output:

```The list contains: 10 20 30
The list contains: 10 100 20 30
The list contains: 200 10 100 20 30
```
```using System;

//node structure
class Node {
public int data;
public Node next;
public Node prev;
};

}

//Add new element at the end of the list
public void push_back(int newElement) {
Node newNode = new Node();
newNode.data = newElement;
newNode.next = null;
newNode.prev = null;
} else {
Node temp = new Node();
temp = temp.next;
temp.next = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
}
}

//Inserts a new element at the given position
public void push_at(int newElement, int position) {
Node newNode = new Node();
newNode.data = newElement;
newNode.next = null;
int NoOfElements = 0;
if(temp != null) {
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp.next;
}
NoOfElements++;
temp = temp.next;
}

if(position < 1 || position > (NoOfElements+1)) {
Console.Write("\nInvalid position.");
} else if (position == 1) {
} else {
temp = temp.next;
}
temp.next = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
}
} else {

for(int i = 1; i < position-1; i++)
temp = temp.next;
newNode.next = temp.next;
newNode.next.prev = newNode;
newNode.prev = temp;
temp.next = newNode;
}
}

//display the content of the list
public void PrintList() {
Node temp = new Node();
if(temp != null) {
Console.Write("The list contains: ");
while(true) {
Console.Write(temp.data + " ");
temp = temp.next;
break;
}
Console.WriteLine();
} else {
Console.WriteLine("The list is empty.");
}
}
};

// test the code
class Implementation {
static void Main(string[] args) {

//Add three elements at the end of the list.
MyList.push_back(10);
MyList.push_back(20);
MyList.push_back(30);
MyList.PrintList();

//Insert an element at position 2
MyList.push_at(100, 2);
MyList.PrintList();

//Insert an element at position 1
MyList.push_at(200, 1);
MyList.PrintList();
}
}
```

The above code will give the following output:

```The list contains: 10 20 30
The list contains: 10 100 20 30
The list contains: 200 10 100 20 30
```
```<?php
//node structure
class Node {
public \$data;
public \$next;
public \$prev;
}

public function __construct(){
}

//Add new element at the end of the list
public function push_back(\$newElement) {
\$newNode = new Node();
\$newNode->data = \$newElement;
\$newNode->next = null;
\$newNode->prev = null;
} else {
\$temp = new Node();
\$temp = \$temp->next;
}
\$temp->next = \$newNode;
\$newNode->prev = \$temp;
}
}

//Inserts a new element at the given position
public function push_at(\$newElement, \$position) {
\$newNode = new Node();
\$newNode->data = \$newElement;
\$newNode->next = null;
\$NoOfElements = 0;

if(\$temp != null) {
\$NoOfElements++;
\$temp = \$temp->next;
}
\$NoOfElements++;
\$temp = \$temp->next;
}

if(\$position < 1 || \$position > (\$NoOfElements+1)) {
echo "\nInvalid position.";
} else if (\$position == 1) {
} else {
\$temp = \$temp->next;
}
\$temp->next = \$newNode;
\$newNode->prev = \$temp;
}
} else {

for(\$i = 1; \$i < \$position-1; \$i++)
\$temp = \$temp->next;
\$newNode->next = \$temp->next;
\$newNode->next->prev = \$newNode;
\$newNode->prev = \$temp;
\$temp->next = \$newNode;
}
}

//display the content of the list
public function PrintList() {
\$temp = new Node();
if(\$temp != null) {
echo "The list contains: ";
while(true) {
echo \$temp->data." ";
\$temp = \$temp->next;
break;
}
echo "\n";
} else {
echo "The list is empty.\n";
}
}
};

// test the code

//Add three elements at the end of the list.
\$MyList->push_back(10);
\$MyList->push_back(20);
\$MyList->push_back(30);
\$MyList->PrintList();

//Insert an element at position 2
\$MyList->push_at(100, 2);
\$MyList->PrintList();

//Insert an element at position 1
\$MyList->push_at(200, 1);
\$MyList->PrintList();
?>
```

The above code will give the following output:

```The list contains: 10 20 30
The list contains: 10 100 20 30
The list contains: 200 10 100 20 30
```

5