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× Data Structures - Linked List Other Related Topics


Traversing through a linked list is very easy. It requires creating a temp node pointing to the head of the list. If the temp node is not null, display its content and move to the next node using temp next. Repeat the process till the temp node becomes null. If the temp node is empty at the start, then the list contains no item.

The function PrintList is created for this purpose. It is a 3-step process.

void PrintList() {
  
  //1. create a temp node pointing to head
  Node* temp = head;
  
  //2. if the temp node is not null continue 
  //   displaying the content and move to the 
  //   next node till the temp becomes null
  if(temp != NULL) {
    cout<<"\nThe list contains: ";
    while(temp != NULL) {
      cout<<temp->data<<" ";
      temp = temp->next;
    }
  } else {
    
    //3. If the temp node is null at the start, 
    //   the list is empty
    cout<<"\nThe list is empty.";
  }
} 
void PrintList(struct Node* head_ref) {
  
  //1. create a temp node pointing to head
  struct Node* temp = head_ref;
  
  //2. if the temp node is not null continue 
  //   displaying the content and move to the 
  //   next node till the temp becomes null
  if(head_ref != NULL) {
    printf("\nThe list contains: ");
    while (temp->next != NULL) {
      printf("%i ",temp->data);
      temp = temp->next;    
    }
    printf("%i ",temp->data);
  } else {
    
    //3. If the temp node is null at the start, 
    //   the list is empty
    printf("\nThe list is empty.");
  }   
}
def PrintList(self):
  
  #1. create a temp node pointing to head
  temp = self.head
  
  #2. if the temp node is not null continue 
  #   displaying the content and move to the 
  #   next ode till the temp becomes null
  if(temp != None):
    print("\nThe list contains:", end=" ")
    while (temp != None):
      print(temp.data, end=" ")
      temp = temp.next
  else:
    
    #3. If the temp node is null at the start, 
    #   the list is empty
    print("\nThe list is empty.")
void PrintList() {
  
  //1. create a temp node pointing to head
  Node temp = new Node();
  temp = this.head;

  //2. if the temp node is not null continue 
  //   displaying the content and move to the 
  //   next node till the temp becomes null
  if(temp != null) {
    System.out.print("\nThe list contains: ");
    while(temp != null) {
      System.out.print(temp.data + " ");
      temp = temp.next;
    }
  } else {
    
    //3. If the temp node is null at the start, 
    //   the list is empty
    System.out.print("\nThe list is empty.");
  }
}    
public void PrintList() {
  
  //1. create a temp node pointing to head
  Node temp = new Node();
  temp = this.head;

  //2. if the temp node is not null continue 
  //   displaying the content and move to the 
  //   next node till the temp becomes null
  if(temp != null) {
    Console.Write("\nThe list contains: ");
    while(temp != null) {
      Console.Write(temp.data + " ");
      temp = temp.next;
    }
  } else {
    
    //3. If the temp node is null at the start, 
    //   the list is empty
    Console.Write("\nThe list is empty.");
  }
}  
public function PrintList() {
  
  //1. create a temp node pointing to head
  $temp = new Node();
  $temp = $this->head;
  
  //2. if the temp node is not null continue 
  //   displaying the content and move to the 
  //   next node till the temp becomes null
  if($temp != null) {
    echo "\nThe list contains: ";
    while($temp != null) {
      echo $temp->data." ";
      $temp = $temp->next;
    }
  } else {
    
    //3. If the temp node is null at the start, 
    //   the list is empty
    echo "\nThe list is empty.";
  }
}  

The below is a complete program that uses above discussed concept to traverse through the linked list and displaying its content.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

//node structure
struct Node {
    int data;
    Node* next;
};

class LinkedList {
  private:
    Node* head;
  public:
    LinkedList(){
      head = NULL;
    }
 
    //Add new element at the end of the list
    void push_back(int newElement) {
      Node* newNode = new Node();
      newNode->data = newElement;
      newNode->next = NULL; 
      if(head == NULL) {
        head = newNode;
      } else {
        Node* temp = head;
        while(temp->next != NULL)
          temp = temp->next;
        temp->next = newNode;
      }    
    }

    //display the content of the list
    void PrintList() {
      Node* temp = head;
      if(temp != NULL) {
        cout<<"\nThe list contains: ";
        while(temp != NULL) {
          cout<<temp->data<<" ";
          temp = temp->next;
        }
      } else {
        cout<<"\nThe list is empty.";
      }
    }    
};

// test the code 
int main() {
  LinkedList MyList;

  //Add three elements at the end of the list.
  MyList.push_back(10);
  MyList.push_back(20);
  MyList.push_back(30);

  //traverse to display the content of the list.
  MyList.PrintList();
  
  return 0; 
}

The above code will give the following output:

The list contains: 10 20 30 
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

//node structure
struct Node {
  int data;
  struct Node* next;
};

//Add new element at the end of the list
void push_back(struct Node** head_ref, int newElement) {  
  struct Node *newNode, *temp;
  newNode = (struct Node*)malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); 
  newNode->data = newElement;  
  newNode->next = NULL;
  if(*head_ref == NULL) {
    *head_ref = newNode; 
  } else {
    temp = *head_ref;
    while(temp->next != NULL) {
      temp = temp->next;
    }    
    temp->next = newNode;
  }
}

//display the content of the list
void PrintList(struct Node* head_ref) {
  struct Node* temp = head_ref;
  if(head_ref != NULL) {
    printf("\nThe list contains: ");
    while (temp->next != NULL) {
      printf("%i ",temp->data);
      temp = temp->next;    
    }
    printf("%i ",temp->data);
  } else {
    printf("\nThe list is empty.");
  }   
}

// test the code 
int main() {
  struct Node* MyList = NULL;

  //Add three elements at the end of the list.
  push_back(&MyList, 10);
  push_back(&MyList, 20);
  push_back(&MyList, 30);

  //traverse to display the content of the list.
  PrintList(MyList);

  return 0; 
}

The above code will give the following output:

The list contains: 10 20 30 
# node structure
class Node:
  def __init__(self, data):
    self.data = data
    self.next = None

#class Linked List
class LinkedList:
  def __init__(self):
    self.head = None

  #Add new element at the end of the list
  def push_back(self, newElement):
    newNode = Node(newElement)
    if(self.head == None):
      self.head = newNode
      return
    else:
      temp = self.head
      while(temp.next != None):
        temp = temp.next
      temp.next = newNode

  #display the content of the list
  def PrintList(self):
    temp = self.head
    if(temp != None):
      print("\nThe list contains:", end=" ")
      while (temp != None):
        print(temp.data, end=" ")
        temp = temp.next
    else:
      print("\nThe list is empty.")

# test the code                 
MyList = LinkedList()

#Add three elements at the end of the list.
MyList.push_back(10)
MyList.push_back(20)
MyList.push_back(30)

#traverse to display the content of the list.
MyList.PrintList()

The above code will give the following output:

The list contains: 10 20 30 
//node structure
class Node {
    int data;
    Node next;
};

class LinkedList {
  Node head;

  LinkedList(){
    head = null;
  }

  //Add new element at the end of the list
  void push_back(int newElement) {
    Node newNode = new Node();
    newNode.data = newElement;
    newNode.next = null; 
    if(head == null) {
      head = newNode;
    } else {
      Node temp = new Node();
      temp = head;
      while(temp.next != null)
        temp = temp.next;
      temp.next = newNode;
    }    
  }

  //display the content of the list
  void PrintList() {
    Node temp = new Node();
    temp = this.head;
    if(temp != null) {
      System.out.print("\nThe list contains: ");
      while(temp != null) {
        System.out.print(temp.data + " ");
        temp = temp.next;
      }
    } else {
      System.out.print("\nThe list is empty.");
    }
  }    
};

// test the code
public class Implementation {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    LinkedList MyList = new LinkedList();

    //Add three elements at the end of the list.
    MyList.push_back(10);
    MyList.push_back(20);
    MyList.push_back(30);

    //traverse to display the content of the list.
    MyList.PrintList(); 
  }
}

The above code will give the following output:

The list contains: 10 20 30 
using System;

//node structure
class Node {
  public int data;
  public Node next;
};

class LinkedList {
  Node head;

  public LinkedList(){
    head = null;
  }
  
  //Add new element at the end of the list
  public void push_back(int newElement) {
    Node newNode = new Node();
    newNode.data = newElement;
    newNode.next = null; 
    if(head == null) {
      head = newNode;
    } else {
      Node temp = new Node();
      temp = head;
      while(temp.next != null)
        temp = temp.next;
      temp.next = newNode;
    }    
  }

  //display the content of the list
  public void PrintList() {
    Node temp = new Node();
    temp = this.head;
    if(temp != null) {
      Console.Write("\nThe list contains: ");
      while(temp != null) {
        Console.Write(temp.data + " ");
        temp = temp.next;
      }
    } else {
      Console.Write("\nThe list is empty.");
    }
  }    
};

// test the code
class Implementation {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
    LinkedList MyList = new LinkedList();

    //Add three elements at the end of the list.
    MyList.push_back(10);
    MyList.push_back(20);
    MyList.push_back(30);

    //traverse to display the content of the list.
    MyList.PrintList();   
  }
}

The above code will give the following output:

The list contains: 10 20 30 
<?php
//node structure
class Node {
  public $data;
  public $next;
}

class LinkedList {
  public $head;

  public function __construct(){
    $this->head = null;
  }
  
  //Add new element at the end of the list
  public function push_back($newElement) {
    $newNode = new Node();
    $newNode->data = $newElement;
    $newNode->next = null; 
    if($this->head == null) {
      $this->head = $newNode;
    } else {
      $temp = new Node();
      $temp = $this->head;
      while($temp->next != null) {
        $temp = $temp->next;
      }
      $temp->next = $newNode;
    }    
  }

  //display the content of the list
  public function PrintList() {
    $temp = new Node();
    $temp = $this->head;
    if($temp != null) {
      echo "\nThe list contains: ";
      while($temp != null) {
        echo $temp->data." ";
        $temp = $temp->next;
      }
    } else {
      echo "\nThe list is empty.";
    }
  }    
};

// test the code 
$MyList = new LinkedList();

//Add three elements at the end of the list.
$MyList->push_back(10);
$MyList->push_back(20);
$MyList->push_back(30);

//traverse to display the content of the list.
$MyList->PrintList();
?>

The above code will give the following output:

The list contains: 10 20 30