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× PHP Data Structures - Circular Doubly Linked List Other Related Topics


A circular doubly linked list is a linear data structure, in which the elements are stored in the form of a node. Each node contains three sub-elements. A data part that stores the value of the element, the previous part that stores the link to the previous node, and the next part that stores the link to the next node as shown in the below image:

Linked List Node

The first node also known as HEAD is always used as a reference to traverse the list. Last element contains link to the first element as next and the first element contains link of the last element as previous. A circular doubly linked can be visualized as a chain of nodes, where every node points to previous and next node.

Linked List

Implementation of Circular Doubly Linked List

Representation:

In PHP, doubly linked list can be represented as a class and a Node as a separate class. The LinkedList class contains a reference of Node class type.

//node structure
class Node {
  public $data;
  public $next;
  public $prev;
}

class LinkedList {
  public $head; 

  //constructor to create an empty LinkedList
  public function __construct(){
    $this->head = null;
  }
};

Create a Circular Doubly Linked List

Let us create a simple circular doubly linked list which contains three data nodes.

<?php
//node structure
class Node {
  public $data;
  public $next;
  public $prev;
}

class LinkedList {
  public $head; 

  //constructor to create an empty LinkedList
  public function __construct(){
    $this->head = null;
  } 
};

// test the code  
//create an empty LinkedList 
$MyList = new LinkedList();

//Add first node.
$first = new Node();
$first->data = 10;
$first->next = null;
$first->prev = null;
//linking with head node
$MyList->head = $first;
//linking next of the node with head
$first->next = $MyList->head;
//linking prev of the head 
$MyList->head->prev = $first;

//Add second node.
$second = new Node();
$second->data = 20;
$second->next = null;
//linking with first node
$second->prev = $first;
$first->next = $second;
//linking next of the node with head
$second->next = $MyList->head;
//linking prev of the head 
$MyList->head->prev = $second;

//Add third node.
$third = new Node();
$third->data = 30;
$third->next = null;
//linking with second node
$third->prev = $second;
$second->next = $third;
//linking next of the node with head
$third->next = $MyList->head;
//linking prev of the head 
$MyList->head->prev = $third;
?>

Traverse a Circular Doubly Linked List

A circular doubly linked list can be traversed from any node of the list using a temp node. Keep on moving the temp node to the next one and displaying its content. Stop the traversal, after reaching the starting node.

<?php
//node structure
class Node {
  public $data;
  public $next;
  public $prev;
}

class LinkedList {
  public $head;

  //constructor to create an empty LinkedList
  public function __construct(){
    $this->head = null;
  }

  //display the content of the list
  public function PrintList() {
    $temp = new Node();
    $temp = $this->head;
    if($temp != null) {
      echo "\nThe list contains: ";
      while(true) {
        echo $temp->data." ";
        $temp = $temp->next;
        if($temp == $this->head)
          break;  
      }
    } else {
      echo "\nThe list is empty.";
    }
  }   
};

// test the code  
//create an empty LinkedList 
$MyList = new LinkedList();

//Add first node.
$first = new Node();
$first->data = 10;
$first->next = null;
$first->prev = null;
//linking with head node
$MyList->head = $first;
//linking next of the node with head
$first->next = $MyList->head;
//linking prev of the head 
$MyList->head->prev = $first;

//Add second node.
$second = new Node();
$second->data = 20;
$second->next = null;
//linking with first node
$second->prev = $first;
$first->next = $second;
//linking next of the node with head
$second->next = $MyList->head;
//linking prev of the head 
$MyList->head->prev = $second;

//Add third node.
$third = new Node();
$third->data = 30;
$third->next = null;
//linking with second node
$third->prev = $second;
$second->next = $third;
//linking next of the node with head
$third->next = $MyList->head;
//linking prev of the head 
$MyList->head->prev = $third;

//print the content of list
$MyList->PrintList();   
?>

The above code will give the following output:

The list contains: 10 20 30