SQL - Operators
Operators are used to perform operation on two operands. Operators in SQL can be categorized as follows:
- Arithmetic operators
- Comparison operators
- Logical operators
SQL Arithmetic operators
Arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic operations on two operands.
|+||Addition||Add two values||More Info|
|-||Subtraction||Subtract one value from another||More Info|
|*||Multiplication||Multiply two values||More Info|
|/||Division||Divide one value by another||More Info|
|%||Modulo||Returns remainder of division operation||More Info|
SQL Comparison operators
Comparison operators are used to compare values of two operands. It returns true when values matches and false when values does not match.
|=||Equal to||More Info|
|==||Equal to||More Info|
|!=||Not equal to||More Info|
|<>||Not equal to||More Info|
|>||Greater than||More Info|
|<||Less than||More Info|
|>=||Greater than or equal to||More Info|
|<=||Less than or equal to||More Info|
SQL Logical operators
Logical operators are used to create and combine one or more conditions.
|ALL||Returns true if all of the subquery values meet the condition.|
|AND||Only includes rows where both conditions is true.|
|ANY||Returns true if any of the subquery values meet the condition.|
|BETWEEN||Selects values within a given range.|
|EXISTS||Tests for the existence of records from a subquery.|
|IN||Allows you to specify multiple values in a WHERE clause.|
|LIKE||Searches for a specified pattern in a column.|
|NOT||Only includes rows where a condition is not true.|
|OR||Returns True when any of the conditions is true.|
|IS NULL||Tests for empty values.|
|UNIQUE||A constraint that ensures that all values in a column are unique.|
SQL Operators Precedence
Operator precedence (order of operations) is a collection of rules that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given expression.
For example, multiplication has higher precedence than addition. Thus, the expression 1 + 2 × 3 is interpreted to have the value 1 + (2 × 3) = 7, and not (1 + 2) × 3 = 9. When exponent is used in the expression, it has precedence over both addition and multiplication. Thus 3 + 52 = 28 and 3 × 52 = 75.
The following table lists the precedence of SQL operators. Operators are listed top to bottom, in descending precedence. Operators with higher precedence are evaluated before operators with relatively lower precedence.
|8||+, -||Unary plus, Unary minus|
|7||*, /, %||Multiplication, Division, Modulo|
|6||+, -, ||||Addition, Subtraction, Concatenation|
|5||=, !=, >, <, >=, <=, <>||Comparison|
|4||IS [NOT] NULL|