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× Algorithms


Kadane's algorithm is based on the idea of looking for all positive contiguous subarray and find the maximum sum of a contiguous subarray.

In this algorithm, a variable called max_sum is created to store maximum sum of the positive contiguous subarray till current iterated element and a variable called current_sum is created to store sum of the positive subarray which ends at current iterated element. In each iteration, current_sum is compared with max_sum, to update max_sum if it is greater than max_sum.

Example:

To understand the kadane's algorithm, lets consider an array Array = [-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4] and discuss each step taken to find the maximum sum of all positive contiguous subarray.

Insertion Sort
  max_sum = current_sum = 0

  Step 1: i = 0, Array[0] =  -3
  current_sum = current_sum + (-3) = -3
  Set current_sum = 0 because current_sum < 0

  Step 2: i = 1, Array[0] =  1
  current_sum = current_sum + 1 = 1
  update max_sum = 1 because current_sum > max_sum

  Step 3: i = 2, Array[0] =  -8
  current_sum = current_sum + (-8) = -7
  Set current_sum = 0 because current_sum < 0

  Step 4: i = 3, Array[0] =  12
  current_sum = current_sum + 12 = 12
  update max_sum = 12 because current_sum > max_sum

  Step 5: i = 4, Array[0] =  0
  current_sum = current_sum + 0 = 12

  Step 6: i = 5, Array[0] =  -3
  current_sum = current_sum + (-3) = 9

  Step 7: i = 6, Array[0] =  5
  current_sum = current_sum + 5 = 14
  update max_sum = 14 because current_sum > max_sum

  Step 8: i = 7, Array[0] =  -9
  current_sum = current_sum + (-9) = 5

  Step 9: i = 8, Array[0] =  4
  current_sum = current_sum + 4 = 9

Hence, after all iterations, the value of max_sum is 14. The stating index point and end index point of this subarray are 3 and 6 respectively.

Implementation of Kadane's Algorithm

# function for kadane's algorithm
def kadane(MyList):
  max_sum = 0
  current_sum = 0
  for i in MyList: 
    current_sum = current_sum + i
    if current_sum < 0:
      current_sum = 0
    if max_sum < current_sum:
      max_sum = current_sum
  return max_sum
  
# test the code                 
MyList = [-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4]
print("Maximum SubArray is:",kadane(MyList))

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
public class MyClass {
  // function for kadane's algorithm
  static int kadane(int Array[]) {
    int max_sum = 0;
    int current_sum = 0;
    int n = Array.length;

    for(int i=0; i<n; i++) {
      current_sum = current_sum + Array[i];
      if (current_sum < 0)
        current_sum = 0; 
      if(max_sum < current_sum)
        max_sum = current_sum; 
    }
    return max_sum;
  }

  // test the code
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    int[] MyArray = {-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4};
    System.out.println("Maximum SubArray is: " + kadane(MyArray));
  }
}

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

// function for kadane's algorithm
static int kadane(int Array[], int n) {
  int max_sum = 0;
  int current_sum = 0;
  for(int i=0; i<n; i++) {
    current_sum = current_sum + Array[i];
    if (current_sum < 0)
      current_sum = 0; 
    if(max_sum < current_sum)
      max_sum = current_sum; 
  }
  return max_sum;
}

// test the code
int main() {
  int MyArray[] = {-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4};
  int n = sizeof(MyArray) / sizeof(MyArray[0]);
  cout<<"Maximum SubArray is: "<<kadane(MyArray, n);
  return 0;
}

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
#include <stdio.h>

// function for kadane's algorithm
static int kadane(int Array[], int n) {
  int max_sum = 0;
  int current_sum = 0;
  for(int i=0; i<n; i++) {
    current_sum = current_sum + Array[i];
    if (current_sum < 0)
      current_sum = 0; 
    if(max_sum < current_sum)
      max_sum = current_sum; 
  }
  return max_sum;
}

// test the code
int main() {
  int MyArray[] = {-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4};
  int n = sizeof(MyArray) / sizeof(MyArray[0]);
  printf("Maximum SubArray is: %i", kadane(MyArray, n));
  return 0;
}

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
using System;

class MyProgram {
  // function for kadane's algorithm
  static int kadane(int[] Array) {
    int max_sum = 0;
    int current_sum = 0;
    int n = Array.Length;
    for(int i=0; i<n; i++) {
      current_sum = current_sum + Array[i];
      if (current_sum < 0)
        current_sum = 0; 
      if(max_sum < current_sum)
        max_sum = current_sum; 
    }
    return max_sum;
  }

  // test the code
  static void Main(string[] args) {
    int[] MyArray = {-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4};
    Console.Write("Maximum SubArray is: " + kadane(MyArray));
  }
}

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
<?php
// function for kadane's algorithm
function kadane($Array, $n) {
  $max_sum = 0;
  $current_sum = 0;
  for($i=0; $i<$n; $i++) {
    $current_sum = $current_sum + $Array[$i];
    if ($current_sum < 0)
      $current_sum = 0; 
    if($max_sum < $current_sum)
      $max_sum = $current_sum; 
  }
  return $max_sum;
}

// test the code
$MyArray = array(-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4);
$n = sizeof($MyArray);
echo "Maximum SubArray is: ".kadane($MyArray, $n);
?>

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14

To get the location of maximum subarray, variables max_start and max_end are maintained with the help of variables current_start and current_end.

# function for kadane's algorithm
def kadane(MyList):
  max_sum = 0
  current_sum = 0

  max_start = 0
  max_end = 0
  current_start = 0
  current_end = 0

  for i in range(len(MyList)): 
    current_sum = current_sum + MyList[i]
    current_end = i
    
    if current_sum < 0:
      current_sum = 0
      # Start a new sequence from next element
      current_start = current_end + 1

    if max_sum < current_sum:
      max_sum = current_sum
      max_start = current_start
      max_end = current_end
      
  print("Maximum SubArray is:", max_sum)
  print("Start index of max_Sum:", max_start)
  print("End index of max_Sum:", max_end)
  
# test the code                 
MyList = [-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4]
kadane(MyList)

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
Start index of max_Sum: 3
End index of max_Sum: 6
public class MyClass {
  // function for kadane's algorithm
  static void kadane(int Array[]) {
    int max_sum = 0;
    int current_sum = 0;
    int n = Array.length;

    int max_start = 0;
    int max_end = 0;
    int current_start = 0;
    int current_end = 0;

    for(int i=0; i<n; i++) {
      current_sum = current_sum + Array[i];
      current_end = i;

      if (current_sum < 0) {
        current_sum = 0;
        //Start a new sequence from next element
        current_start = current_end + 1;
      }

      if(max_sum < current_sum) {
        max_sum = current_sum;
        max_start = current_start;
        max_end = current_end;
      }
    }

    System.out.println("Maximum SubArray is: " + max_sum);
    System.out.println("Start index of max_Sum: " + max_start);
    System.out.println("End index of max_Sum: " + max_end);
  }

  // test the code
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    int[] MyArray = {-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4};
    kadane(MyArray);
  }
}

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
Start index of max_Sum: 3
End index of max_Sum: 6
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

// function for kadane's algorithm
static void kadane(int Array[], int n) {
  int max_sum = 0;
  int current_sum = 0;

  int max_start = 0;
  int max_end = 0;
  int current_start = 0;
  int current_end = 0;

  for(int i=0; i<n; i++) {
    current_sum = current_sum + Array[i];
    current_end = i;

    if (current_sum < 0) {
      current_sum = 0;
      //Start a new sequence from next element
      current_start = current_end + 1;
    }

    if(max_sum < current_sum) {
      max_sum = current_sum;
      max_start = current_start;
      max_end = current_end;
    }
  }

  cout<<"Maximum SubArray is: "<<max_sum<<"\n";
  cout<<"Start index of max_Sum: "<<max_start<<"\n";
  cout<<"End index of max_Sum: "<<max_end<<"\n";
}

// test the code
int main() {
  int MyArray[] = {-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4};
  int n = sizeof(MyArray) / sizeof(MyArray[0]);
  kadane(MyArray, n);
  return 0;
}

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
Start index of max_Sum: 3
End index of max_Sum: 6
#include <stdio.h>

// function for kadane's algorithm
static void kadane(int Array[], int n) {
  int max_sum = 0;
  int current_sum = 0;

  int max_start = 0;
  int max_end = 0;
  int current_start = 0;
  int current_end = 0;

  for(int i=0; i<n; i++) {
    current_sum = current_sum + Array[i];
    current_end = i;

    if (current_sum < 0) {
      current_sum = 0;
      //Start a new sequence from next element
      current_start = current_end + 1;
    }

    if(max_sum < current_sum) {
      max_sum = current_sum;
      max_start = current_start;
      max_end = current_end;
    }
  }

  printf("Maximum SubArray is: %i\n", max_sum);
  printf("Start index of max_Sum: %i\n", max_start);
  printf("End index of max_Sum: %i\n", max_end);
}

// test the code
int main() {
  int MyArray[] = {-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4};
  int n = sizeof(MyArray) / sizeof(MyArray[0]);
  kadane(MyArray, n);
  return 0;
}

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
Start index of max_Sum: 3
End index of max_Sum: 6
using System;

class MyProgram {
  // function for kadane's algorithm
  static void kadane(int[] Array) {
    int max_sum = 0;
    int current_sum = 0;
    
    int max_start = 0;
    int max_end = 0;
    int current_start = 0;
    int current_end = 0;

    int n = Array.Length;
    for(int i=0; i<n; i++) {
      current_sum = current_sum + Array[i];
      current_end = i;

      if (current_sum < 0) {
        current_sum = 0;
        //Start a new sequence from next element
        current_start = current_end + 1;
      }

      if(max_sum < current_sum) {
        max_sum = current_sum;
        max_start = current_start;
        max_end = current_end;
      }
    }

    Console.WriteLine("Maximum SubArray is: " + max_sum);
    Console.WriteLine("Start index of max_Sum: " + max_start);
    Console.WriteLine("End index of max_Sum: " + max_end);
  }

  // test the code
  static void Main(string[] args) {
    int[] MyArray = {-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4};
    kadane(MyArray);
  }
}

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
Start index of max_Sum: 3
End index of max_Sum: 6
<?php
// function for kadane's algorithm
function kadane($Array, $n) {
  $max_sum = 0;
  $current_sum = 0;

  $max_start = 0;
  $max_end = 0;
  $current_start = 0;
  $current_end = 0;

  for($i=0; $i<$n; $i++) {
    $current_sum = $current_sum + $Array[$i];
    $current_end = $i;

    if ($current_sum < 0) {
      $current_sum = 0;
      //Start a new sequence from next element
      $current_start = $current_end + 1;
    }

    if($max_sum < $current_sum) {
      $max_sum = $current_sum;
      $max_start = $current_start;
      $max_end = $current_end;
    }
  }

  echo "Maximum SubArray is: ".$max_sum."\n";
  echo "Start index of max_Sum: ".$max_start."\n";
  echo "End index of max_Sum: ".$max_end."\n";
}

// test the code
$MyArray = array(-3, 1, -8, 12, 0, -3, 5, -9, 4);
$n = sizeof($MyArray);
kadane($MyArray, $n);
?>

The above code will give the following output:

Maximum SubArray is: 14
Start index of max_Sum: 3
End index of max_Sum: 6

Time Complexity:

The time complexity of Kadane's algorithm is Θ(N).


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