# C# Program - Fibonacci Sequence

Fibonacci terms are generally represented as $F_n$. A Fibonacci term is the sum of two previous terms and starts with $0$ and $1$. Mathematically, it can be represented as:

$F_n$ = $F_{n-1}$ + $F_{n-2}$

With boundary conditions: $F_0$ = 0 and $F_1$ = 1

The Fibonacci Sequence: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233...

### Example: Using Recursive method

In the below example, a recursive method called fib() is created to find out the nth term of Fibonacci sequence.

using System;

namespace MyApplication {
class MyProgram {
static int fib(int n) {
if (n == 0)
{return 0;}
else if (n == 1)
{return 1;}
else
{return fib(n-1) + fib(n-2);}
}

static void Main(string[] args) {
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 5th term: " + fib(5));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 6th term: " + fib(6));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 7th term: " + fib(7));
}
}
}


Output

Fibonacci 5th term: 5
Fibonacci 6th term: 8
Fibonacci 7th term: 13


### Example: Using Dynamic Programming

The Fibonacci term can also be estimated using dynamic programming. As compared to the recursive method, it calculates a specific term of the sequence only once.

using System;

namespace MyApplication {
class MyProgram {
static int fib(int n) {
//creating array which contains Fibonacci terms
int[] f = new int[n+1];
f = 0;
f = 1;
for(int i = 2; i <= n ; i++)
{
f[i] = f[i-1] + f[i-2];
}
return f[n];
}

static void Main(string[] args) {
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 6th term: " + fib(6));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 7th term: " + fib(7));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 8th term: " + fib(8));
}
}
}


Output

Fibonacci 6th term: 8
Fibonacci 7th term: 13
Fibonacci 8th term: 21


### Example: Using Ternary Operator

This can also be achieved using ternary operator.

using System;

namespace MyApplication {
class MyProgram {
static int fib(int n) {
int y = (n == 0)? 0 : (n == 1) ? 1 : fib(n-1) + fib(n-2);
return y;
}

static void Main(string[] args) {
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 8th term: " + fib(8));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 9th term: " + fib(9));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 10th term: " + fib(10));
}
}
}


Output

Fibonacci 8th term: 21
Fibonacci 9th term: 34
Fibonacci 10th term: 55


### Example: Space optimized method

In this method, only three variables are used which changes in each iteration and finally nth term of Fibonacci Sequence is calculated.

using System;

namespace MyApplication {
class MyProgram {
static int fib(int n) {
int a = 0, b = 1, c = 0;
if (n == 0)
{return a;}
for(int i = 2; i <= n; i++)
{
c = a + b;
a = b;
b = c;
}
return b;
}

static void Main(string[] args) {
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 9th term: " + fib(9));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 10th term: " + fib(10));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 11th term: " + fib(11));
}
}
}


Output

Fibonacci 9th term: 34
Fibonacci 10th term: 55
Fibonacci 11th term: 89


### Example: Using power of matrix

A Fibonacci sequence term can also be calculated as power of matrix. A Fibonacci sequence holds below mentioned property:

$\begin{pmatrix}1 & 1\\\ 1 & 0\end{pmatrix}^n$ = $\begin{pmatrix}F_{n+1} & F_n\\\ F_n & F_{n-1}\end{pmatrix}$

To calculate $F_n$, $A = \begin{pmatrix}1 & 1\\\ 1 & 0\end{pmatrix}^n$ is calculated and $A_{01}$ will be the $F_n$.

using System;

namespace MyApplication {
class MyProgram {
static int fib(int n) {
int[,] initial = new int[2,2]{{1,1},{1,0}};
int[,] Final = new int[2,2]{{1,1},{1,0}};
int a, b, c, d;
if (n == 0)
{return 0;}
else
{
for(int i = 1; i < n ; i++)
{
a = Final[0,0]*initial[0,0] + Final[0,1]*initial[1,0];
b = Final[1,0]*initial[0,0] + Final[1,1]*initial[1,0];
c = Final[0,0]*initial[0,1] + Final[0,1]*initial[1,1];
d = Final[1,0]*initial[0,1] + Final[1,1]*initial[1,1];
Final[0,0] = a;
Final[1,0] = b;
Final[0,1] = c;
Final[1,1] = d;
}

}
return Final[0,1];
}

static void Main(string[] args) {
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 10th term: " + fib(10));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 11th term: " + fib(11));
Console.WriteLine("Fibonacci 12th term: " + fib(12));
}
}
}


Output

Fibonacci 10th term: 55
Fibonacci 11th term: 89
Fibonacci 12th term: 144