# PHP Program - Merge Sort

Merge sort is a divide and conquer algorithm. It is based on the idea of dividing the unsorted array into several sub-array until each sub-array consists of a single element and merging those sub-array in such a way that results into a sorted array. The process step of merge sort can be summarized as follows:

**Divide:**Divide the unsorted array into several sub-array until each sub-array contains only single element.**Merge:**Merge the sub-arrays in such way that results into sorted array and merge until achieves the original array.**Merging technique:**the first element of the two sub-arrays is considered and compared. For ascending order sorting, the element with smaller value is taken from the sub-array and becomes a new element of the sorted array. This process is repeated until both sub-array are emptied and the merged array becomes sorted array.

### Example:

To understand the merge sort, lets consider an unsorted array *[4, 9, -4]* (right side array created after 11th process in the below diagram) and discuss each step taken to sort the array in ascending order.

At the first step, the array *[4, 9, -4]* is divided into two sub-array. The first sub-array contains *[4, 9]* and second sub-array contains *[-4]*. As the number of element in the first sub-array is greater than one, it is further divided into sub-arrays consisting of elements *[4]* and *[9]* respectively. As the number of elements in all sub-arrays is one, hence the further dividing of the array can not be done.

In the merging process, The sub-arrays formed in the last step are combined together using the process mentioned above to form a sorted array. First, *[4]* and *[9]* sub-arrays are merged together to form a sorted sub-array *[4, 9]*. Then *[4, 9]* and *[-4]* sub-arrays are merged together to form final sorted array *[-4, 4, 9]*

## Implementation of Merge Sort

<?php // function for merge sort - splits the array // and call merge function to sort and merge the array // mergesort is a recursive function function mergesort(&$Array, $left, $right) { if ($left < $right) { $mid = $left + (int)(($right - $left)/2); mergesort($Array, $left, $mid); mergesort($Array, $mid+1, $right); merge($Array, $left, $mid, $right); } } // merge function performs sort and merge operations // for mergesort function function merge(&$Array, $left, $mid, $right) { // Create two temporary array to hold split // elements of main array $n1 = $mid - $left + 1; //no of elements in LeftArray $n2 = $right - $mid; //no of elements in RightArray $LeftArray = array_fill(0, $n1, 0); $RightArray = array_fill(0, $n2, 0); for($i=0; $i < $n1; $i++) { $LeftArray[$i] = $Array[$left + $i]; } for($i=0; $i < $n2; $i++) { $RightArray[$i] = $Array[$mid + $i + 1]; } // In below section x, y and z represents index number // of LeftArray, RightArray and Array respectively $x=0; $y=0; $z=$left; while($x < $n1 && $y < $n2) { if($LeftArray[$x] < $RightArray[$y]) { $Array[$z] = $LeftArray[$x]; $x++; } else { $Array[$z] = $RightArray[$y]; $y++; } $z++; } // Copying the remaining elements of LeftArray while($x < $n1) { $Array[$z] = $LeftArray[$x]; $x++; $z++; } // Copying the remaining elements of RightArray while($y < $n2) { $Array[$z] = $RightArray[$y]; $y++; $z++; } } // function to print array function PrintArray($Array, $n) { for ($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++) echo $Array[$i]." "; echo "\n"; } // test the code $MyArray = array(10, 1, 23, 50, 4, 9, -4); $n = sizeof($MyArray); echo "Original Array\n"; PrintArray($MyArray, $n); mergesort($MyArray, 0, $n-1); echo "\nSorted Array\n"; PrintArray($MyArray, $n); ?>

The above code will give the following output:

Original Array 10 1 23 50 4 9 -4 Sorted Array -4 1 4 9 10 23 50

### Time Complexity:

In all cases (worst, average and best), merge sort always divides the array until all sub-arrays contains single element and takes linear time to merge those sub-arrays. Dividing process has time complexity *Θ(logN)* and merging process has time complexity *Θ(N)*. Therefore, in all cases, the time complexity of merge sort is *Θ(NlogN)*.

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