# C++ - Operators

Operators are used to perform operation on a single operand or two operands. Operators in C++ can be categorized as follows:

• Arithmetic operators
• Assignment operators
• Comparison operators
• Increment/Decrement operators
• Logical operators
• Bitwise operators
• Miscellaneous operators

## C++ Arithmetic operators

Arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic operations on two operands.

OperatorNameDescription
-SubtractionSubtract one value from another
*MultiplicationMultiply two values
/DivisionDivide one value by another
%ModuloReturns remainder of division operation

Example

## C++ Assignment operators

Assignment operators are used to assign values of right hand side expression to left hand side operand.

OperatorExpressionEquivalent toDescription
=a = 5a = 5Example
+=a += ba = a + b
-=a -= ba = a - b
*=a *= ba = a * b
/=a /= ba = a / b
%=a %= ba = a % b

## C++ Comparison operators

Comparison operators are used to compare values of two operands. It returns true when values matches and returns false when values does not match.

OperatorDescription
==Equal
!= Not equal
>Greater than
<Less than
>=Greater than or equal to
<=Less than or equal to

Example

## C++ Increment/Decrement operators

Increment and decrement operators are used to increase and decrease the value of variable.

OperatorNameDescriptionExample
++xPre-incrementIncreases the value of x by 1, then returns x.Example
x++Post-incrementReturns x, then increases the value of x by 1.
--xPre-decrementDecreases the value of x by 1, then returns x.Example
x--Post-decrementReturns x, then decreases the value of x by 1.

## C++ Logical operators

Logical operators are used to combine two or more conditions.

Operator Name Description
&&ANDReturns true when all conditions are true
||ORReturns true when any of the conditions is true
!NOTReturns opposite boolean result

## C++ Bitwise operators

Bitwise operators are used to perform bitwise operations on two operands.

&ANDReturns 1 if both bits at the same position in both operands are 1, else returns 0.More Info
|ORReturns 1 if one of two bits at the same position in both operands is 1, else returns 0.More Info
^XORReturns 1 if only one of two bits at the same position in both operands is 1, else returns 0.More Info
>>Right shiftThe left operand is moved right by the number of bits present in the right operand.More Info
<<Left shiftThe left operand value is moved left by the number of bits present in the right operand.More Info

## C++ Miscellaneous operators

The table below describes other operators supported by C++:

OperatorDescription
comma operator (,)Evaluates each of its operands (from left to right) and returns the value of the last operand.
sizeof()Returns size of a data type, constants or variable.
ternary operator (?:)Returns one of the two values based on value of boolean expression.
Dereference operator (*)Pointer to a variable.

## C++ Operators Precedence

Operator precedence (order of operations) is a collection of rules that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given expression.

For example, multiplication has higher precedence than addition. Thus, the expression 1 + 2 × 3 is interpreted to have the value 1 + (2 × 3) = 7, and not (1 + 2) × 3 = 9. When exponent is used in the expression, it has precedence over both addition and multiplication. Thus 3 + 52 = 28 and 3 × 52 = 75.

The following table lists the precedence and associativity of C++ operators. Operators are listed top to bottom, in descending precedence. Operators with higher precedence are evaluated before operators with relatively lower precedence. When operators have the same precedence, associativity of the operators determines the order in which the operations are performed.

PrecedenceOperatorDescriptionAssociativity
1::Scope resolution operatorLeft to Right
2a++  a--Postfix increment, Postfix decrement
type()  type{}Functional cast
a()Function call
a[]Subscript
.  ->Member access
3++a  --aPrefix increment, Prefix decrementRight to Left
+a  -aUnary plus, Unary minus
!Logical NOT
~Bitwise NOT
(type)C-style cast
*aIndirection (dereference)
sizeofsizeof operator
new  new[]Dynamic memory allocation
delete  delete[]Dynamic memory deallocation
4.*  ->*Pointer to memberLeft to Right
5*  /  %Multiplication, Division, Remainder
7<<  >>Bitwise left shift and right shift
8<  <=  >  >=Less than, Less than or equal, Greater than, and Greater than or equal
9==  !=Equality and Inequality
10&Bitwise AND
11^Bitwise XOR
12|Bitwise OR
13&&Logical AND
14||Logical OR
15a?b:cConditional (ternary) operatorRight to Left
throwthrow operator
=Direct assignment
+=  -=  *=  /=  %=Compound assignment by sum, difference, product, quotient and remainder
<<=  >>=Compound assignment by Bitwise left shift and right shift
&=  ^=  |=Compound assignment by Bitwise AND, XOR and OR
16,CommaLeft to Right

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