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NumPy - Functions



The NumPy has a number of built-in functions which can be used for array creation and manipulation. For example, array() function is used to create ndarray object from an array-like object. Along with this, it also contains various functions for mathematical, arithmetical and statistical operations. Below is the list of most commonly used functions of NumPy:

NumPy - Functions

Array Creation/Manipulation Functions

FunctionDescription
append() Appends values to the end of an array.
arange() Return evenly spaced values within a given interval.
array() Returns an array.
asarray() Converts the input to an array.
broadcast() Produce an object that mimics broadcasting.
broadcast_to() Broadcast an array to a new shape.
concatenate() Returns a concatenated array along the specified axis.
empty() Returns a new array of given shape and type, without initializing entries.
expand_dims() Expand the shape of an array.
eye() Returns a 2-D array with ones on the diagonal and zeros elsewhere.
frombuffer() Interpret a buffer as a 1-dimensional array.
fromiter() Create a new 1-dimensional array from an iterable object.
histogram() Computes the histogram of a set of data.
identity() Returns the identity array.
linspace() Returns evenly spaced numbers over a specified interval.
logspace() Return numbers spaced evenly on a log scale.
ndarray.copy() Return a copy of the array.
ndarray.flat A 1-D iterator over the array.
ndarray.flatten() Returns a copy of the array collapsed into one dimension.
meshgrid() Return coordinate matrices from coordinate vectors.
ones() Returns a new array of given shape and type, filled with ones.
pad() Pad an array.
ravel() Returns a contiguous flattened array.
reshape() Gives a new shape to an array without changing its data.
resize() Return a new array with the specified shape.
ndarray.resize() Changes the shape and size of array in-place.
ndarray.view() New view of array with the same data.
rollaxis() Roll the specified axis backwards, until it lies in a given position.
swapaxes() Interchange two axes of an array.
stack() Join a sequence of arrays along a new axis.
hstack() Stack arrays in sequence horizontally (column wise).
vstack() Stack arrays in sequence vertically (row wise).
split() Split an array into multiple sub-arrays.
hsplit() Split an array into multiple sub-arrays horizontally (column-wise).
vsplit() Split an array into multiple sub-arrays vertically (row-wise).
insert() Insert values along the given axis before the given indices.
delete() Return a new array with sub-arrays along an axis deleted.
transpose() Reverses or permutes the axes of an array.
ndarray.T Returns the transposed array.
squeeze() Remove axes of length one from an array.
unique() Find the unique elements of an array.
zeros() Returns a new array of given shape and type, filled with zeros.

Linear Algebra Functions

FunctionsDescription
linalg.det() Compute the determinant of an array.
linalg.inv() Compute the determinant of a matrix.
linalg.solve() Compute the determinant of a matrix.

Matrix Functions

FunctionsDescription
matlib.empty() Returns a matrix of given shape and type, without initializing entries.
matlib.eye() Returns a matrix with ones on the diagonal and zeros elsewhere.
matlib.identity() Returns the square identity matrix of given size.
matlib.ones() Returns a matrix of given shape and type, filled with ones.
matlib.rand() Return a matrix of random values with given shape.
matlib.randn() Return a random matrix with data from the “standard normal” distribution.
matlib.zeros() Returns a matrix of given shape and type, filled with zeros.

Statistical Functions

FunctionsDescription
amax() Returns the maximum of an array or maximum along an axis.
amin() Returns the minimum of an array or minimum along an axis.
average() Computes the weighted average along the specified axis.
mean() Computes the arithmetic mean along the specified axis.
median() Computes the median along the specified axis.
percentile() Computes the specified percentile of the data along the specified axis.
ptp() Return range of values (maximum - minimum) of an array or along an axis.
std() Compute the standard deviation along the specified axis.
var() Compute the variance along the specified axis.

Sorting, Searching & Counting Functions

FunctionsDescription
argmax() Returns the indices of the maximum values along an axis.
argmin() Returns the indices of the minimum values along an axis.
argsort() Returns the indices that would sort an array.
extract() Return the elements of an array that satisfy some condition.
lexsort() Perform an indirect stable sort using a sequence of keys.
nonzero() Return the indices of the elements that are non-zero.
sort() Returns a sorted copy of an array.
where() Return elements depending on condition.

Basic Math Functions

FunctionsDescription
dot() Returns dot product of two arrays.
inner() Returns inner product of two arrays.
matmul() Returns matrix product of two arrays.
sum() Sum of array elements over a given axis.
vdot() Returns dot product of two vectors.
sqrt() Returns the square root of the given number.
cbrt() Returns the cube root of the given number.
clip() Clip (limit) the values in an array.
diff() Calculate the n-th discrete difference along the given axis.

Trigonometric Functions

FunctionsDescription
sin() Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle in radians.
cos() Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle in radians.
tan() Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle in radians.
arcsin() Returns the arc sine of a value.
arccos() Returns the arc cosine of a value.
arctan() Returns the arc tangent of a value.
hypot() Given the legs of a right triangle, return its hypotenuse.
degrees() Convert angles from radians to degrees.
radians() Convert angles from degrees to radians.
rad2deg() Convert angles from radians to degrees.
deg2rad() Convert angles from degrees to radians.

Hyperbolic Functions

FunctionsDescription
sinh() Returns the hyperbolic sine of a value.
cosh() Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a value.
tanh() Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a value.
arcsinh() Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a value.
arccosh() Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a value.
arctanh() Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a value.

Rounding Functions

FunctionsDescription
around() Rounds to the given number of decimals.
ceil() Rounds the given number up to the nearest integer.
floor() Rounds the given number down to the nearest integer.
fix() Round to nearest integer towards zero.
rint() Round elements of the array to the nearest integer.
trunc() Return the truncated value of the input, element-wise.

Exponents and Logarithms Functions

FunctionsDescription
exp() Returns the exponent of e.
expm1() Returns the exponent of e minus 1, i.e., ex-1.
log() Returns the natural logarithm of a given number.
log1p() Returns the natural logarithm of (1+number), i.e., log(1+number).
log2() Returns the base-2 logarithm of a given number.
log10() Returns the base-10 logarithm of a given number.

Arithmetic Functions

FunctionsDescription
add() Add arguments element-wise.
subtract() Subtract arguments, element-wise.
multiply() Multiply arguments element-wise.
divide() Returns a true division of the inputs, element-wise.
true_divide() Returns a true division of the inputs, element-wise.
floor_divide() Return the largest integer smaller or equal to the division of the inputs.
power() Returns base raised to the power of exponent.
fmod() Return element-wise remainder of division.
mod() Return element-wise remainder of division.
remainder() Return element-wise remainder of division.
reciprocal() Return the reciprocal of the argument, element-wise.

Handling Complex Numbers

FunctionsDescription
angle() Return the angle of the complex argument.
real() Return the real part of the complex argument.
imag() Return the imaginary part of the complex argument.
conj() Return the complex conjugate, element-wise.
conjugate() Return the complex conjugate, element-wise.

Input & Output Functions

FunctionsDescription
save() Save an array to a binary file in NumPy .npy format.
load() Load arrays from .npy file.
savetxt() Save an array to a text file.
loadtxt() Load data from a text file.
ndarray.tolist() Return the array as a (nested) Python list.

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