R - Element-wise Logical AND operator

In R, element-wise Logical AND operator & combines each element of the first vector with the corresponding element of the second vector and returns TRUE if both of the elements are TRUE, else returns FALSE. It can be applied on vectors of type logical, numeric or complex. All numbers other than 0 are considered as logical value TRUE.

This operator can also be used to combine conditions and returns True when all conditions are true.

Example: using with vectors

Consider the example below, where & operators is used with vectors.

```v1 <- c(10, 0, TRUE, 1+2i)
v2 <- c(20, -1, FALSE, 5+2i)

#Applying & operator
print(v1 & v2)
```

The output of the above code will be:

```[1]  TRUE FALSE FALSE  TRUE
```

Example: using with matrices

Similarly, the & operators can be used with matrices. All operations are performed element-wise.

```m1 <- matrix(c(10, 0, TRUE, 1+2i), nrow=2)
m2 <- matrix(c(20, -1, FALSE, 5+2i), nrow=2)

#Applying & operator
print(m1 & m2)
```

The output of the above code will be:

```      [,1]  [,2]
[1,]  TRUE FALSE
[2,] FALSE  TRUE
```

Example: Combining conditions

Consider the example below, where & operators is used to combine conditions.

```i <- 16

if (i <= 25 & i >= 10) {
sprintf("%d lies between 10 and 25.", i)
} else {
sprintf("%d is less than 10.", i)
}
```

The output of the above code will be:

```[1] "16 lies between 10 and 25."
```

❮ R - Operators

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